Work can be done under various circumstances, e.g. regularly, full time, with a fixed term or part-time. The types of employment affects e.g. the termination of the work contract, the dismissal and the cancellation of the work contract.
It is not allowed to apply poorer conditions on fixed-term or part-time employment: employees must be treated equally regardless of the employment form.
The various types of employment require fair and just work contracts.
Regular and full-time work is the most common form of employment. Permanent employment valid until further notice is usually ended at a dismissal by either the employee’s or the employer’s initiative. The employer needs an appropriate and weighty reason for dismissal, whereas employees can hand in their notice without giving grounds. Both have their own, determined notice periods. In a situation regulated by the law, the employment can also end in cancellation, when the rights and duties based on the employment end immediately without a notice period. Permanent employment is very usual in Finland of all the types of employment.
A work contract can be defined as fixed-term, which means that the employment will end at a point in time defined in advance. A fixed-term work contract can basically only be made for a justified reason. The work contract must contain the reason why it is fixed-term and the ending time or an estimate thereof. In principle, neither party can terminate a fixed-term contract prior to the end of the fixed term. However, the fixed-term work contract can include a termination clause. Then termination is possible under the same conditions as in regular employment. A fixed-term work contract can be terminated immediately, like a permanent work contract, too. The termination requires an essential breach of contract.
The same employer sometimes enters into several successive fixed-term work contracts with the employee. Using repeated fixed-term contracts is not allowed when the number of fixed-term contracts, their total duration or the entity they form proves that the employer’s need for labour is permanent.
If several successive fixed-term contracts are signed without interruption or only with short-term interruptions, the employment benefits accrue similarly as for those with permanent contracts. Such benefits include e.g. annual leave and sick pay as well as other benefits based on the duration of the employment.
- standing in for a permanent employee
- acting as a peak-period or seasonal help (e.g. summer worker)
- the applicant has been an unemployed job-seeker for the full previous 12 months (the
- duration of a fixed-term contract no more than 1 year)
- the nature of the work (e.g. project)
- making an internship
- other similar matters indicating the temporary nature of the work
A full-time employment usually means five work days and 37,5 or 40 weekly working hours. The work contract may stipulate that the work is only performed for a part of the day or week. Part-time work refers to a smaller number of working hours than the agreed maximum working time in the industry.
It is not allowed to apply poorer working conditions to part-time employment compared to full-time employment, but the benefits can be granted in proportion respective to the working time.
In part-time employment wages are usually paid with respect to the working time. Sometimes the pay is based on hours. It is not allowed to apply poorer working conditions to part-time employment in comparison to full-time employment, but the benefits can be set in proportion to correspond with the working time, for example the right to use lunch vouchers can be tied to the actual working days.
Part-time work can be based on a fixed or varying number of hours. Fixed part-time work refers to a contract that has a fixed working time, e.g. 8 hours per week.
Many qualifications involve at least one compulsory internship. An internship does mainly not differ much from normal fixed-term employment. If the internship is unpaid, an internship contract is signed instead of a work contract, and your educational institution has an insurance to protect you also during the practical training period. If the internship is paid, the employer must take out an insurance for you.
On an apprenticeship contract you can study any vocational basic qualifications, vocational or special vocational qualifications or a part of them. In an apprenticeship, the main part of the competence is acquired at the workplace in practical duties. You will sign a fixed-term contract for the duration of the apprenticeship which defines e.g. the applicable working time and the wage bases. If there is a collective labour agreement in effect in the industry, the provisions of the collective labour agreement shall be applied.
The employer shall decide if wages are also paid during the studies at the educational establishment. If the employer shall not pay wages for the duration of the theoretical studies, you are entitled to financial benefits (daily allowance, family allowance, travel compensation and accommodation allowance).
There is no upper age limit to apprenticeships, and it is also suited to competence development taking place during the work career. Vocational schools provide further information on apprenticeships.